Before you take your swing at the golf ball, you should have the fundamental parts of your set-up perfected in order to hit a good shot.
One part of your set-up which needs to be nailed is the ball position and your stance, which should be different for each club that you hit.
For example, the position of the ball in relation to your feet and the width of your stance should be different with your wedges compared to your driver.
The video below, posted by whatisgolf, shows a fantastic guide to each club and each stance and ball position you should adopt. This video makes it quick and easy to learn each technique.
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With your wedge shots, you should have a narrow stance so that your body is more compact over the ball. This helps with control of your shot.
The ball should be slightly back in your stance towards your back foot. This also helps with your control over this short-distance shot.
With short irons such as your 9-iron or 8-iron, you should have a narrow stance and keep the ball in the middle of your feet. This is just a regular set-up with no complex features.
You begin to open up your body and use your width with mid-irons. Your feet should be shoulder-width apart and the ball should be moved forward in your stance.
With long irons, hybrids and fairway woods, your stance should be shoulder-width again in order to maximise the use of your whole body and make it less compact than your wedge stance.
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The driver requires a wide stance. This helps to open up your body and use your arms and core to their full potential. The ball should be positioned just off your front foot.
Although this may come across as a lot to remember, these are the fundamentals of golf and if you can memorize these components, you'll be on your way to playing better golf.